<bioghist> Biography or History

<bioghist> is an essay or chronology which puts the materials in a historical context. It may contain the information as simple text inside <p> elements or a <chronlist>. It may be nested within itself for complex biographical and historical data (for example, multiple family members).

<bioghist> is one of the elements which may be used within <archdesc>, <archdescgrp>, <c>, <c01> through <c12>, and <descgrp>.It may also be used in <scopecontent>.


  • ALTRENDER – not required. Use if the content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element.
  • AUDIENCE – not required. Use to set whether the element’s contents will be visible to external users or to internal ones. Possible values are: “internal” and “external.”
  • ID – not required. Creates an ID for element. Can be used for linking.
  • ENCODINGANALOG – not required. May contain information to map this tag to a particular element in another schema.
  • TYPE – not required. May be used to designate the type of information.


<bioghist> may contain further <bioghist> elements, as well as <address>, <blockquote>, <chronlist>, <dao>, <daogrp>, <head>, <list>, <note>, <p>, and <table>. Note, since PCDATA is not used within this element, it serves as a wrapper, at least of a <p> element containing the actual text.


See DACS Section 2.7, Administrative/biographical history. (Page 34 of 2007 edition; page 57 of 2007 edition PDF.) For more on writing this content, see DACS Section 10, Administrative/biographical history. (Page 93 of 2007 edition; page 116 of 2007 edition PDF.)


Some examples of how <bioghist> may be used:

	<p><persname normal="Bell, Sarah J.">Sarah J. Bell</persname> was born in Hillsboro Ohio in 1945. After graduating from <corpname normal="St. John's College (Annapolis, MD)" source="lcnaf">St. John's College</corpname> in 1963, she joined the recently-formed <corpname normal="Peace Corps (U.S.)" source="lcnaf">Peace Corps</corpname> and was sent to teach math on the island of Mindanao, Philippines. She spent two years teaching math to students and high school teachers at <corpname source="lcnaf">Central Mindanao University</corpname> in Musuan. After returning to the United States, she worked measuring air pollutants in Ann Arundel County, MD, before obtaining a PhD in Linguistics from <corpname normal="Massachusetts Institute of Technology" source="lcnaf">MIT</corpname>. She taught at the <corpname source="lcnaf">University of British Columbia</corpname>, BC, Canada and studied the language of the Secwepemc (also called Shuswap) people of the interior of British Columbia.</p>
	<p>In 1982, she married <persname normal="Kitchin, Bruce B.">Bruce B. Kitchin</persname> and moved to Delaware, United States. Upon the birth of her first child in 1985, she retired from college-level teaching and instead taught adult literacy classes with <corpname normal="Literacy Volunteers of America" source="lcnaf">Literacy Volunteers</corpname>. In 2004, she began teaching Latin to middle school students at <corpname source="local">Towle Institute</corpname> in Delaware, where she continued to teach until the end of 2009, 7 months before her death from carcinoid cancer.</p>

Let’s make this a chronological list for a particular folder.

	<head>Chronological Events</head>
		<chronitem><date normal="19781028">October 28, 1978</date>
		<event><persname normal="Wossname, Samuel">Sam Wossname</persname> succeeds <persname normal="Othername, John">John Othername</persname> as department head.</event>
		<chronitem><date normal="19790315">March 15, 1979</date>
		<event>Departmental reorganization.</event>

EAD tag library entry for <bioghist>.