<bibliography> Bibliography

<bibliography> is used to encode citations to works based on, about, or of special value to using the materials being described, or works in which a citation to or brief description of materials is available. The works may be in a <list>, in <bibref> and <archref> elements, or in a series of <p> elements.

For single citations within a <p> tag anywhere in the EAD file, <bibref> may be used instead of <bibliography>.

<bibliography> is one of the elements which may be used within <archdesc>, <c>, <c01> … <c12>, and itself.


  • @altrender – not required. Use if the content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element.
  • @audience – not required. Use to set whether the element’s contents will be visible to external users or to internal ones. Possible values are: “internal” and “external.”
  • @encodinganalog – not required. May contain information to map this tag to a particular element in another schema.
  • @id – not required. Creates an ID for element. Can be used for linking.
  • @lang – not required. Three-letter code that indicates the language in which the element’s contents were written. It should come from ISO 639-2b.
  • @localtype – not required. This attribute may be used within a number of elements. Its characteristics depend on the element to which it applies. There is no list of specific values for @localtype within <bibliography>, but it may be used for encoding information.
  • @script – not required. Four-letter code that indicates the script in which the element’s contents were written. It should come from ISO 15924.

Child Elements

<bibliography> may contain an optional <head> element. It must contain one or more of the following: <archref>, <bibref>, <blockquote>, <chronlist>, <list>, <p>, <table>, and further <bibliography> elements.


Within <p> or <bibref> see DACS Section 6.4, Publication note. Added value. (DACS 2013, p.75)


	<head>Works Citing the Collection</head>
	<bibref>Bagshot, Bathilda. <title render="italic"><part>Hogwarts: a History</part></title>.<date normal="1968">1968</date>, <ref href="http://catalog.hogwarts.ac.uk/record=b11725882" show="new" actuate="onrequest">Catalog record for <title><part>Hogwarts: a History</part></title></ref>.</bibref>
	<bibref>Lestrange, Marius. <title><part>"An re-examination of Salazar Slytherin's role in English wizarding marriages"</part></title>. Wizarding Studies Quarterly 51:3 (<date normal="2010-09">September 2010</date>): 384-443.</bibref>
	<bibref>Malfoy, Elizabeth. <title render="italic"><part>A biography of Salazar Slytherin</part><part>: England's greatest wizard</part></title><date normal="1843">1843</date>. <ref href="http://catalog.hogwarts.ac.uk/record=b11727364" show="new" actuate="onrequest">Catalog record for <title><part>A biography of Salazar Slytherin</part><part>: England's greatest wizard</part></title></ref>.</bibref>

Changes from EAD 2002

<bibliography> gained attributes @lang and @script. @type changed to @localtype. It lost child elements <address>, <extref>, <linkgrp>, <note>, and <title>.

EAD3 Tag Library Entry

View the official tag library entry for <bibliography>