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<bibref> Bibliographic Reference

<bibref> is a reference element that provides a citation and/or link for a published work such as a book, article, dissertation, motion picture, or sound recording. It may just contain text or content-specific elements. A list of <bibref> elements may be gathered into a <bibliography>. A single element may be part of a <p>. Either ENTITYREF or HREF should be used to identify an external object.

This should not be confused with <ref>, which is an internal link within the finding aid. The more specific <archref> element should be used to cite or link to separately described archival materials.

<bibref> contained <abstract>, <archref>, <bibliography>, <container>, <creation>, <descrules>, <dimensions>, <emph>, <entry>, <event>, <extent>, <extref>, <item>, <label>, <langmaterial>, <langusage>, <materialspec>, <origination>, <otherfindaid>, <p>, <physdesc>, <physfacet>, <physloc>, <ref>, <relatedmaterial>, <repository>, <separatedmaterial>, <unitdate>, <unitid>, and <unittitle>.


  • ALTRENDER – not required. Use if the content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element.
  • AUDIENCE – not required. Use to set whether the element’s contents will be visible to external users or to internal ones. Possible values are: “internal” and “external.”
  • ID – not required. Creates an ID for element. Can be used for linking.
  • ACTUATE – not required. Controls whether the link occurs automatically or requires user request. Values are: “onload” (automatically), “onrequest” (if user requests), “actuateother” (some other action occurs), and “actuatenone” (no action occurs).
  • ARCROLE – not required. URI preference that identifies a resource that describes some property of an arc-type or simple-type linking element.
  • ENCODINGANALOG – not required. May contain information to map this tag to a particular element in another schema.
  • ENTITYREF – not required. The name of a nonparsed entity declared in the declaration subset of the document that points to a machine-readable version of the cited reference.
  • HREF – not required. The locator for a remote resource in a simple or extended link. An HREF takes the form of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). If no URI is specified, the locator is assumed to be within the document that contains the linking element.
  • LINKTYPE – fixed. Value must be “simple.”
  • ROLE – not required. Information that explains to application software the part that a remote resource plays in a link.
  • SHOW – not required. Used in conjunction with ACTUATE to define whether a remote resource that is the target of a link appears at the point of the link, replaces the existing link, or appears in a new window. Possible values are: “embed” (target displays at point of link), “new” (target appears in new window), “replace” (target resource replaces currently-displayed resource), “showother” (take some other action), and “shownone” (no target resource displays).
  • TITLE – not required. A viewable caption.
  • XPOINTER – not required. The locator for a remote resource in a simple or locator link. The XPOINTER attribute takes the form of a Uniform Resource Identifier plus a reference, formulated in XPOINTER syntax, to a sub-resource of the remote resource. XPOINTER enables linking to specific sections of a document that are relative, i.e., based on their position in the document or their content, rather than by reference to a specific identifier such as an ID.


<bibref> may contain PCDATA as well as <abbr>, <archref>, <bibseries>, <corpname>, <edition>, <emph>, <expan>, <extptr>, <extref>, <famname>, <imprint>, <lb />, <name>, <num>, <persname>, <ptr>, <ref>, and <title>.


See DACS section 6.4, Publication note. Added value. (DACS 2013, p.75)


<p>The Archibald MacLeish Papers are described in 
		<title render="italic">Library of Congress Acquisitions: Manuscript Division, 1982,
		</title> p. 29.
	<p>Sources consulted by John Kobler.</p>
	<bibref><title render="italic">Affiches americaines</title>. San Domingo:
	Imprimerie royale du Cap, 1782. Nos. 30, 35.</bibref>
	<bibref>Ardouin, Charles Nicholas Celigny. <title render="italic">Essais sur
	l'histoire d'Haiti</title>. Port-au-Prince, 1865.</bibref>
	<bibref>Bastien, Remy. <title render="italic">Anthologie du folklore haitien</title>,
	<title render="doublequote"> Proverbes</title>. Mexico, 1946. pp.83-91.</bibref>
	<bibref>Bellegarde, Dantes. <title render="italic">Dessalines a parle</title>.
	Port-au-Prince, 1948. Chap. IV: pp. 47-54.</bibref> . . .

EAD tag library entry for <bibref>.