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<bibliography> Bibliography

<bibliography> is used to encode citations to works based on, about, or of special value to using the materials being described, or works in which a citation to or brief description of materials is available. The works may be in a <list>, in <bibref> and <archref> elements, or in a series of <p> elements.

For single citations within a <p> tag anywhere in the EAD file, <bibref> may be used instead of <bibliography>.

<bibliography> is one of the elements which may be used within <archdesc>, <archdescgrp>, <c>, <c01> through <c12>, and <descgrp>.It may also be used in <scopecontent>.


  • ALTRENDER – not required. Use if the content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element.
  • AUDIENCE – not required. Use to set whether the element’s contents will be visible to external users or to internal ones. Possible values are: “internal” and “external.”
  • ID – not required. Creates an ID for element. Can be used for linking.
  • ENCODINGANALOG – not required. May contain information to map this tag to a particular element in another schema.
  • TYPE – not required. May be used to designate the type of bibliographic information.


<bibliography> may contain further <bibliography> elements, as well as <address>, <archref>, <bibref>, <blockquote>, <chronlist>, <extref>, <head>, <linkgrp>, <list>, <note>, <p>, <ref>, <table>, and <title>. Note, since PCDATA is not used within this element, it serves as a wrapper, at least of a <p> element containing the actual text.


Within <p> or <bibref> see DACS Section 6.4, Publication note. Added value. (DACS 2013, p.75)


One example of how <bibliography> may be used:

		<bibref>Lastname, Firstname. <title>Series of essays on the author</title>. New York: NY, 2010.</bibref>
		<bibref>Second, Author. <title>Treatice referencing some of these papers</title>. Chicago: IL, 1993.</bibref>
		<bibref>Smith, John. <title>"Stories from that era." Journal of Studies</title>. v.43 no.1, 2000.</bibref>

EAD tag library entry for <bibliography>.