<bibref> Bibliographic Reference

<bibref> is an element that groups information related to a citation for a published work such as a book, article, dissertation, motion picture, or sound recording. It may just contain text or content-specific elements. A list of <bibref> elements may be gathered into a <bibliography>. It may be used within <relatedmaterial> or <separatedmaterial> to cite other materials. It may be used within <dsc> to provide information about other materials grouped within.

This should not be confused with <ref>, which is an internal link within the finding aid. The more specific <archref> element should be used to cite separately-described archival materials.


  • @altrender – not required. Use if the content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element.
  • @audience – not required. Use to set whether the element’s contents will be visible to external users or to internal ones. Possible values are: “internal” and “external.”
  • @encodinganalog – not required. May contain information to map this tag to a particular element in another schema.
  • @entityref – not required. The name of a nonparsed entity declared in the declaration subset of the document that points to a machine-readable version of the cited reference.
  • @id – not required. Creates an ID for element. Can be used for linking.
  • @lang – not required. Three-letter code that indicates the language in which the element’s contents were written. It should come from ISO 639-2b.
  • @script – not required. Four-letter code that indicates the script in which the element’s contents were written. It should come from ISO 15924.

Child Elements

<bibref> may contain text as well as <abbr>, <corpname>, <date>, <emph>, <expan>, <famname>, <footnote>, <foreign>, <function>, <genreform>, <geogname>, <langmaterial>, <lb />, <materialspec>, <name>, <num>, <occupation>, <persname>, <ptr/>, <quote>, <ref>, <subject>, <title>.


See DACS section 6.4, Publication note. Added value. (DACS 2013, p.75)


  <head>Works Citing the Collection</head>
    <bibref>Collins, Portia. <title><part>"Tools, Techniques, and Technologies: the Evolution of Quilting Practice from 1820 to 2000"</part></title>. Quilting Studies Quarterly 83:2 (<date normal="2013-06">June 2013</date>): 283-312.</bibref>
    <bibref>Gilmore, Marian. <title render="italic"><part>Rethinking Women's Technologies</part></title>. <date normal="1998">1998</date>. <ref href="https://catalog.piecemaking.edu/catalog/9twe2" show="new" actuate="onload">Catalog record.</ref></bibref>
    <bibref>Miller, Marcus. <title render="italic"><part>Teaching Textiles</part></title>. <date normal="2010">2010</date>. <ref href="https://catalog.piecemaking.edu/catalog/93952" show="new" actuate="onload">Catalog record.</ref></bibref>    

Changes from EAD 2002

Use of <bibref> was removed from quite a few parent elements in EAD3. It lost most of its link-related functionality, attributes @actuate, @arcrole, @entityref, @href, @linktype, @role, @show, @title, and @xpointer. It gained @lang and @script. It lost child elements: <abstract>, <bibref>, <bibseries>, <container>, <dao>, <daogrp>, <extptr>, <extref>, <note>, <occupation>, <physdesc>, <physloc>, <repository>, <unitdate>, <unitid>, and <unittitle>. It added child elements: <corpname>, <date>, <famname>, <footnote>, <function>, <genreform>, <name>, <num>, <occupation>, <persname>, <quote>, and <subject>.

EAD3 Tag Library Entry

View the official tag library entry for <bibref>