<ref> Reference

<ref> is a linking element which may be used to create both internal and external links. Unlike the internal pointer <ptr/> element, <ref> may contain text and child elements that identify or describe the referenced object. It may be used in a variety of ways in an encoded finding aid. For example, it may provide a dynamic link from one <c> to another related <c> in the same way that “See” and “See also” references direct readers of paper-based finding aids. Or, it might be used to direct readers to another repository’s finding aid with related materials.

It may be used within: <abstract>, <addressline>, <archref>, <author>, <bibref>, <citation>, <container>, <date>, <datesingle>, <didnote>, <dimensions>, <edition>, <emph>, <entry>, <event>, <fromdate>, <head>, <head01>, <head02>, <head03>, <indexentry>, <item>, <label>, <materialspec>, <num>, <p>, <part>, <physdesc>, <physfacet>, <physloc>, <ptrgrp>, <publisher>, <quote>, <sponsor>, <subtitle>, <titleproper>, <todate>, <unitdate>, <unitid>, and <unittitle>.


  • @actuate – not required. Determines whether a link occurs automatically or must be requested by a user. Possible values: onload, onrequest, other, none.
  • @altrender – not required. Use if the content of the element should be displayed or printed differently than the rendering established in a style sheet for other occurrences of the element.
  • @arcrole – not required. Specifies the role that a remote resource plays in the link.
  • @audience – not required. Use to set whether the element’s contents will be visible to external users or to internal ones. Possible values are: “internal” and “external.”
  • @href –not required. May be used to designate a URI/URL for the material cited.
  • @id – not required. Creates an ID for element. Can be used for linking.
  • @lang – not required. Three-letter code that indicates the language in which the element’s contents were written. It should come from ISO 639-2b.
  • @linkrole – not required. Specifies the role that a remote resource plays in the link.
  • @linktitle – not required. Designates a title for the link.
  • @script – not required. Four-letter code that indicates the script in which the element’s contents were written. It should come from ISO 15924.
  • @show – not required. Specifies when a link will be shown. Possible values are: new, replace, embed, other, none.
  • @target – not required. Designates an @id reference to the referenced object.
  • @xpointer – not required. The locator for a remote resource in a simple or locator link. The @xpointer attribute takes the form of a URI plus a reference, formulated in @xpointer syntax, to a sub-resource of the remote resource. @xpointer enables linking to specific sections of a document that are relative, i.e., based on their position in the document or their content, rather than by reference to a specific identifier such as an @id.

Child Elements

<ref> may contain text as well as <abbr>, <corpname>, <date>, <emph>, <expan>, <famname>, <footnote>, <function>, <genreform>, <geogname>, <lb/>, <name>, <num>, <occupation>, <persname>, <ptr/>, <quote>, <subject>, and <title>.


  <head>Related material</head>
    <archref><title><part>Martha Russel Papers, 1962-2010</part></title>, #<num localtype="collection_id">mr012</num>, <ref href="https://piecemaking.edu/ark:/1313/mr012">view finding aid</ref></archref>
  <head>Other Finding Aids</head>
  <p>A reverse-chronological list of digitized colloquia and symposia in this collection may be found on the <ref href="https://archives.piecemaking.edu/videos/quilttech-guide">Archives' website</ref>.</p>
  <head>Works Citing the Collection</head>
    <bibref>Collins, Portia. <title><part>"Tools, Techniques, and Technologies: the Evolution of Quilting Practice from 1820 to 2000"</part></title>. Quilting Studies Quarterly 83:2 (<date normal="2013-06">June 2013</date>): 283-312.</bibref>
    <bibref>Gilmore, Marian. <title render="italic"><part>Rethinking Women's Technologies</part></title>. <date normal="1998">1998</date>. <ref href="https://catalog.piecemaking.edu/catalog/9twe2" show="new" actuate="onload">Catalog record.</ref></bibref>
    <bibref>Miller, Marcus. <title render="italic"><part>Teaching Textiles</part></title>. <date normal="2010">2010</date>. <ref href="https://catalog.piecemaking.edu/catalog/93952" show="new" actuate="onload">Catalog record.</ref></bibref>    
  <controlnote audience="external">
      <p>To submit corrections or request clarifications, please use the <ref show="new" actuate="onrequest" href="https://archives.piecemaking.edu/contact/finding-aid-feedback">University Archives' feedback form</ref>.</p>

Changes from EAD 2002

<ref> had minor changes from EAD 2002. @role changed to @linkrole, @title changed to @linktitle. It lost attribute @linktype, and child elements <chronlist>, <extptr>, <extref>, and <list>.

EAD3 Tag Library Entry

View the official tag library entry for <ref>